Top Knee Massagers for Pain Relief in 2024

By Kian

Knee pain can be more than just a nuisance; it can significantly impact your quality of life, limiting mobility and diminishing the joy of activities you love. Whether arising from long-standing arthritis, a recent injury, or the inevitable wear and tear of daily life, the quest for relief is universal. Enter the knee massager: a modern solution designed to soothe, rehabilitate, and invigorate.

With a variety of models boasting features like heat therapy, vibration, and even red light therapy, the right knee massager can be a game-changer. As you navigate the path to recovery or look to maintain knee health, we’ll explore some of the best options available, helping you choose the perfect companion for your journey toward pain-free movement.

The Top 10 Picks

Here’s a list of the top knee massagers tailored to meet a variety of needs, from heat therapy to TENS treatment:

COMFIER Heated Knee Brace

COMFIER Heated Knee Brace Wrap with Massage and...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The COMFIER Heated Knee Brace is a comprehensive solution for those seeking relief from knee and leg discomfort. Merging the benefits of heat and vibration massage, this knee brace is designed to alleviate muscle soreness and joint pain due to various conditions, including overwork, strain, sprain, arthritis, and other chronic pains.

Featuring built-in heat pads, the knee massager provides two levels of heat therapy that are excellent for soothing stiff joints and tired muscles while enhancing blood circulation. Its heating pads have an auto shut-off function to ensure safety during use. The device’s vibrating massage feature, powered by four robust massage motors, delivers a therapeutic massage to tissues and muscles, further relaxing soreness and easing muscle tension and fatigue.

Adjustability and comfort are key aspects of the COMFIER Heated Knee Brace. The adjustable Velcro straps ensure the massager stays in place whether it’s wrapped around the knee or extended to the thighs, calves, or arms. Its soft and smooth velvet fabric offers a comfortable touch, making it ideal for use both at home or in the office.

Despite its many benefits, the brace is quite bulky, covering not just the knee but extending to a significant portion of the thigh and calf. This extensive coverage might not appeal to everyone and can be somewhat intrusive. Another point to consider is the lack of cordlessness. Being tethered to a power source can limit mobility and might make for a cumbersome experience with wires running down and across the legs.

However, the overall functionality of the COMFIER Heated Knee Brace is commendable. It offers good-quality heat and a pleasant vibration that effectively alleviates knee pain. Its simplicity, ease of use, and the ability to wear it over clothing make it a practical choice for everyday relief.

Pros
Combines heat and vibration therapy for comprehensive pain relief
Adjustable heat levels and auto shut-off function for safety
Adjustable straps and versatile design fit different body parts
Soft and smooth velvet fabric for comfortable use
Cons
Bulky design covers a large area of the leg
Not cordless, limiting mobility and creating potential clutter with wires

FIT KING Knee Massager

FIT KING Knee Massager with Heat, Knee Brace Wrap for...
PHOTO: AMAZON


The FIT KING Knee Massager is an all-inclusive knee health care solution adeptly combining heating and air compression massage functions to target the entire knee and the surrounding calf and thigh areas effectively. Designed to warm up the knee, this massager is instrumental in relieving pain, improving circulation, reducing joint swelling, and accelerating injury recovery. The 103.9-inch long power cord further enhances its usability by allowing freedom of movement during use.

Efficient heating massage is a standout feature of this knee brace wrap massager. It boasts two large heating areas that quickly warm up the knees, helping to alleviate pain and soreness. The user can select from two heating levels or turn it off individually, adding a layer of personalization to the treatment. Additionally, the device offers three massage modes and three intensity settings through its 2+2 compression airbags, ensuring a range of personalized massage experiences to suit individual needs.

The FIT KING Knee Massager is also celebrated for its adjustable size, accommodating different users with ease through its Velcro adjustments. Its simple control panel, complemented by a colour-coded indicator light for modes and intensities, ensures an intuitive and hassle-free experience. Furthermore, a 20-minute auto shut-off function is programmed for safety, preventing overheating and overmassaging.

This massager is not only effective but also portable. It comes with a storage bag, making it convenient to carry around, be it at home or in the office. Its compact size and high-quality construction make it an excellent gift option for various occasions.

However, the FIT KING Knee Massager is not without its limitations. It’s not wireless and requires to be plugged in for use, restricting mobility to some extent and necessitating proximity to a power source. Unlike some other knee massagers, it doesn’t feature vibration, which might be a sought-after feature for some users. Despite these points, its compact design and ease of use, combined with the effective combination of heat and compression, make it a noteworthy option for those in need of knee relief.

Pros
Efficient heating with two large areas and adjustable levels
Air compression massage with customizable modes and intensities
Adjustable size and easy operation with a clear control panel
Portable with a long power cord and included storage bag
Not as bulky as other knee massagers, offering a more compact design
Cons
Not wireless and requires proximity to a power source
Lacks vibration feature found in some other knee massagers

Snailax Cordless Knee Massager

Snailax Cordless Knee Massager with Heat, Knee Pain...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The Snailax Cordless Knee Massager epitomizes convenience and comfort in knee pain relief. Its cordless design liberates users from the confines of a power outlet, allowing the enjoyment of a relaxing knee massage at home, office, or even while travelling. The massager is further enhanced with an LED touch screen, offering clear visibility and easy operation, contributing to an overall user-friendly experience.

The massager offers a customizable vibration feature, providing powerful and ultra-comfortable massage to alleviate knee pain and discomfort associated with arthritis. With three adjustable vibration modes, users can tailor the massage intensity to their specific needs and preferences.

Additionally, the knee massager is equipped with three heating levels, ranging from 113℉ to 131℉, allowing users to select the ideal warmth to complement the vibration massage. The inclusion of IR & LSR light aims to deliver a more comfortable and relaxing knee massage experience, helping to improve blood circulation, relieve muscle soreness, and reduce fatigue.

Designed with ergonomics in mind, the Snailax Knee Massager fits snugly around the knee, fully wrapping it for maximum comfort and relaxation. Its unique structure is made to conform to the shape of the knee, particularly when bent, adding an additional layer of comfort and ensuring effective delivery of heat and vibration to the targeted area.

However, the product’s design also introduces some limitations. The plastic casing on the front, while aligning with the shape of a bent knee, means that the massager is primarily effective only in that position. This restricts the user’s movement and may make the massager less effective when the leg is straight.

Additionally, the bulkiness of the plastic encasing can lead to the massager sliding down the knee or struggling to stay in place. Despite the benefits of cordless freedom and LED touch screen controls, these features contribute to a higher cost, positioning the Snailax Knee Massager as one of the more expensive options in its category.

Overall, the Snailax Cordless Knee Massager is a viable option for those looking for a cordless solution that effectively delivers heat and vibration therapy. While it’s ideal for use in a seated position and offers advanced features like LED touchscreen controls, potential buyers should consider the product’s design and cost in relation to their specific needs and usage scenarios.

Pros
Cordless design for flexible use anywhere
LED touch screen for clear visibility and convenient operation
Customizable vibration with three modes for tailored relief
3 heating levels to suit personal preferences
Ergonomic design conforms to the shape of the knee
Cons
Slightly bulky and may slide down or not stay in place
More expensive due to advanced features like cordless design and LED controls

Sharper Image Knee Wrap

Calming Heat Knee Wrap By Sharper Image Personal...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The Sharper Image Calming Heat™ Massaging Knee Wrap is designed to provide a comforting blend of heat therapy and vibration massage, enveloping your knee in soothing warmth and gentle pressure. This innovative device is distinguished by its adjustable design, allowing for a custom fit to target relief exactly where you need it. It’s versatile enough to wrap around not just the knee but also the thighs, calves, arms, and legs, ensuring comprehensive coverage and flexibility.

One of the most notable features is the weighted clay bead filling. These beads are key to delivering gentle, even pressure across the affected area, significantly enhancing the soothing experience. They conform to your body, providing a tailored fit that ensures maximum contact and effectiveness of both heat and massage therapies.

The wrap itself is crafted from high-quality plush velveteen fabric, offering an ultra-comfortable experience. This softness is especially beneficial when the wrap is used for extended periods, providing a comforting touch against the skin. Regarding functionality, the Calming Heat Knee Wrap doesn’t fall short. It boasts two therapeutic heat settings and five vibration settings, resulting in ten different relaxation combinations. Whether you prefer a pulse, wave, or continuous vibration, you can customize the experience to your liking.

Despite its numerous benefits, the wrap does have its limitations. Some users might find the heat and vibration levels less intense than desired, which could be a drawback for those seeking more robust therapy. Additionally, individuals with larger legs may struggle to secure the wrap tightly, potentially diminishing its effectiveness and comfort.

In summary, the Sharper Image Calming Heat™ Massaging Knee Wrap is a solid choice for those seeking a weighted, conforming knee wrap that offers gentle heat and vibration. While it might not be the most powerful on the market, its affordability and versatility make it an attractive option for many.

Pros
Weighted clay bead filling conforms to the knee for better fit and even pressure
High-quality plush velveteen fabric for a soft and luxurious feel
Ten combinations of heat and massage settings for personalized relief
Versatile enough to be used on various body parts
One of the more affordable options in its category
Cons
Heat and vibration levels may be weaker than some prefer
Not as effective for larger legs due to size limitations
Not cordless, restricting mobility

Hyperice X

Hyperice X - Advanced Contrast Therapy (Knee)
PHOTO: AMAZON

The Hyperice X revolutionizes pain and inflammation treatment by providing the power of cold therapy and heat in one device. This product offers instant relief and sustained comfort through advanced hot and cold therapy. Unlike traditional icing and heating pads, Hyperice X ensures a consistent temperature for as long as you need it, or it can automatically switch between hot and cold on a set program—all cordlessly and controlled via an app.

With its adaptive fit, the Hyperice X moves with you, allowing for fully automated, electric contrast therapy at home or on-the-go without any preparation, ice, or cords. Its lightweight and travel-friendly design, weighing only 2 lbs and approved as a TSA carry-on, ensures you can have relief anytime, anywhere. Additionally, the device can switch between cold or hot in just 60 seconds thanks to its patented temperature control, making it incredibly convenient for immediate use.

The device is especially beneficial for those seeking to tackle pain and inflammation with cold therapy or reduce tension and aches with heat. Its app-controlled feature adds an innovative touch, providing users with an easy and efficient way to manage their therapy sessions.

However, while the cordless function is a significant advantage, the battery life of 1.5 hours might require frequent recharging, which could be a drawback for users looking for longer use without interruption. Moreover, as a premium product from Hyperice, known for its quality and construction, the price point is higher, making it a considerable investment.

In conclusion, Hyperice X is an effective solution for those who prioritize quality and seek versatile, on-the-go hot and cold therapy. Its advanced features, comfort, and efficacy, make it an excellent choice for anyone who doesn’t mind the premium price and is seeking top-notch treatment for their knees without needing massage functions.

Pros
Offers both cold and hot therapy in one device
Cordless design for use anytime, anywhere
App-controlled for easy operation
Quick temperature changes in 60 seconds
Lightweight and travel-friendly
Cons
Short battery life requires frequent recharging
Premium pricing, making it a significant investment
Lacks massage functions for those looking for an all-in-one solution

COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager

COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager with Heat, Vibration...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager offers an advanced solution for effective pain relief, combining vibration and heating therapy. It boasts five levels of vibration modes and three levels of graphene heating function, allowing users to experience a range of therapeutic temperatures from 104.0°F to 140.0°F. The standout feature is its cordless design, providing unmatched convenience and portability.

Equipped with a 2500mAh battery and magnetic control panel, this knee massager is rechargeable and easily detachable from the knee pads. Once fully charged with the Type-C charging cable, it offers freedom from cords, enabling users to enjoy a comfortable knee massage anywhere, whether at work, post-exercise or during household chores.

The COMFIER massager’s versatility is further enhanced by its 3-in-1 design, functioning as an elbow and shoulder massager as well, in addition to massaging arms and calves. This multi-functionality not only saves money but also brings more enjoyment to the user experience. It is equipped with an extended fixed strap for a better, more secure massage experience, ensuring the pads stay in place.

Operational ease is at the heart of the COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager’s design. It features an easy-to-control digital touch-screen control panel with just three buttons, making it simple to switch between settings. The intelligent 30-minute timer with automatic shutdown ensures safety during use, making it an ideal gift for anyone.

However, while the fabric at the top of the knee is designed for flexibility and movement, some users may prefer a tighter fit around the knee. Despite this minor detail, the COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager excels in design, portability, and versatility. It is an excellent option for anyone looking for a compact, less bulky, and cordless massager without compromising features or value.

Pros
Cordless and rechargeable for convenient, portable use
Five vibration modes and three graphene heating levels for customizable therapy
Versatile 3-in-1 design for use on knees, elbows, shoulders, arms, and calves
Compact and not bulky, easy to carry and travel with
Simple-to-use digital touch-screen control panel
Cons
The fabric may be too loose for some users preferring a tighter fit
No air compression feature

BioRecover™ Light Therapy Knee Brace

LifePro Vibration Red & Near Infrared Light Therapy...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The BioRecover™ Knee Brace stands out in the market as an innovative device specifically designed to accelerate knee recovery. It’s a sophisticated knee wrap that utilizes a blend of vibration and dual-frequency red & near-infrared therapy. This advanced combination aims to improve circulation and stimulate cellular regeneration of tissue, thereby speeding up recovery from knee-related issues.

A significant feature of the BioRecover™ Knee Brace is its ability to relieve joint and muscle pain. The 850 nm near-infrared (NIR) light therapy penetrates deeply into tissues and muscles, reducing inflammation and alleviating pain. Concurrently, the 660 nm red light therapy stimulates the regeneration of skin cells, collagen, and elastin, aiding recovery from skin damage and enhancing overall knee health.

This knee brace is not just about advanced technology; it’s also about personalization. With a remote control, users can select from five vibration levels, three modes of infrared light therapy, and a bonus 10 Hz pulse mode, which enhances the effect of the red and near-infrared band LEDs. This level of customization ensures that users can adjust the therapy to their specific recovery needs and comfort levels.

The BioRecover™ is designed for convenience and can be used both at home and on-the-go. Thanks to its USB-C power port, users can connect the knee brace to an outlet at home or to an external battery when away, making it a versatile tool for continuous recovery support.

Despite its numerous benefits, there are a couple of drawbacks to consider. The strap’s Velcro might not be as robust as some users would prefer, leading to occasional slippage or adjustment issues. Additionally, while USB-C power is a significant advantage for portability, it does mean that some power source is always required, which may not always be convenient.

Overall, the BioRecover™ Knee Brace is an excellent choice for those looking to leverage the added benefits of red light therapy for knee recovery. Its compact, non-bulky design, combined with the efficacy of its targeted therapy around the knee area, makes it a worthy investment. However, potential users should be aware of its higher cost relative to other options and the minor issues with the strap’s Velcro.

Pros
Combines vibration and dual-frequency red & near infrared therapy for faster recovery
850 nm NIR light therapy reduces inflammation and joint, muscle pain
660 nm red light therapy stimulates regeneration of skin cells, collagen, and elastin
Customizable with five vibration levels and three light therapy modes
Portable with USB-C power port for use at home or on-the-go
Non-bulky, compact, and easy to wear
Cons
Straps’ Velcro may not be very strong, leading to occasional adjustments
Requires a power source like a USB bank for operation
More costly compared to other knee brace options

QUINEAR Knee Massager

QUINEAR Knee Massager with Heat, Air Compression Knee...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The QUINEAR Knee Massager is an effective solution for those needing relief from joint pain, muscle stiffness, and soreness. It incorporates a 2+2 airbag system which inflates and deflates to simulate hand kneading. This feature, combined with the heating element, relaxes the knee and the surrounding calf and thigh muscles, reducing joint pain and muscle stiffness. The heat further aids in relieving soreness, enhancing blood circulation, reducing swelling, and accelerating injury recovery.

Adjustability is a key aspect of this massager. It’s ergonomically designed with separate long straps for the upper calf and lower thigh, ensuring a snug fit. The velcro design makes it easy to adjust the wrap size, catering to both small and big knees. This level of customization means most people can use the QUINEAR Knee Massager, making it a cost-effective option for households.

Operation is straightforward thanks to the built-in control panel with just four buttons. Different colours of indicator light display the functions or levels, making it user-friendly. A safety feature of a 20-minute auto shut-off function ensures that the device doesn’t overheat or over-massage, providing a safe user experience. Portability is also considered, as the massager weighs only 2.7 lbs and comes with a storage bag for easy transportation.

However, it is important to note that those with larger legs might find it challenging to get a comfortable wrap with this model. The velcro might not hold as well for someone with thicker legs, potentially limiting the user base. Additionally, unlike some other models, it’s not a cordless massager, so proximity to a power socket is necessary during use.

In conclusion, the QUINEAR Knee Massager is a commendable option for those looking for air compression and heat therapy. It’s particularly suited for individuals with smaller legs due to its size and velcro limitations. Despite not being cordless, its effective combination of air compression massage and heating therapy, along with its ease of use, makes it a worthy consideration for anyone looking to relieve knee discomfort and support their overall knee health.

Pros
Air compression and heating therapy for effective pain relief
Adjustable wrap fits most people
Easy operation with a built-in control panel
Lightweight and portable with a storage bag
Not overly bulky
Cons
Velcro may not hold well for larger individuals
Not a cordless model; requires proximity to a power socket

Beurer EM34 Knee and Elbow TENS Machine

Beurer EM34 TENS Unit Muscle Stimulator, 2-in-1 Knee &...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The Beurer Knee TENS machine is a novel approach to knee pain relief, integrating TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) technology into a convenient knee brace design. This 2-in-1 TENS unit is an electric muscle stimulator that provides targeted pain relief by sending electrical impulses to the muscles, making it a potent solution for alleviating knee and elbow pain.

One of the standout features of this device is its easy operation. The TENS device is designed for simplicity, featuring auto shut-off and a built-in timer function, ensuring users can keep track of their treatment time without hassle. The e-stim machine is equipped with 25 adjustable intensity levels, allowing users to find the program that best fits their needs. The digital LCD display aids in easily visualizing and setting the desired intensity level.

The universal brace is another highlight, with an ergonomic design featuring a hook-and-loop fastener that can be used on elbows and knees, fitting both large and small circumferences.

However, while the TENS unit offers targeted pain relief and customizable settings, there are some considerations. The brace targets pain based on where it fits around the knee, which might not provide the pinpoint accuracy of TENS sessions using sticky pads directly on pain points.

Moreover, despite its cordless design for added convenience, the unit is not rechargeable and relies on batteries, which may require frequent replacements depending on usage. Additionally, each purchase covers only one knee, so those needing simultaneous bilateral treatment might need to invest in two units.

In summary, the Beurer Knee TENS machine is a solid choice for individuals familiar with the benefits of TENS therapy and seeking a convenient solution for knee pain relief. It offers a non-bulky, easy-to-use alternative that allows freedom of movement during use. While it may not replace the precision of traditional TENS units with sticky pads, its portability, ease of use, and affordability make it an attractive option for regular pain management.

Pros
TENS technology offers targeted muscle and pain relief
Easy operation with auto shut-off and built-in timer function
25 adjustable intensity levels for personalized therapy
Ergonomic, universal brace design fits various body sizes
Drug-free, natural pain relief method
Portable and easy to use without the need for a power socket
Cons
Targeting may not be as precise as traditional TENS units with sticky pads
Requires batteries and is not rechargeable
Each purchase covers only one knee, potentially doubling the cost for bilateral treatment

SKG Knee Massager

SKG Knee Massager with Heat and Vibration, Cordless...
PHOTO: AMAZON

The SKG W3 PRO Knee Massager emerges as a beacon of comfort and convenience in personal massage devices. This advanced wireless massager boasts a substantial 2000 mAh battery capacity, offering up to 90 minutes of continuous massage. This feature ensures that users can enjoy a soothing massage anytime, anywhere, whether at home, in the office, or on the go.

A distinct feature of the SKG W3 PRO is its four high-performance vibration motors, which are not typically found in standard knee massagers. These motors, coupled with three massage modes, deliver a robust and precise massage experience that targets knee fatigue effectively. The addition of 100% large area heating ensures complete coverage of the knee region, with four heating levels ranging from 104℉ to 131℉ to cater to various needs. The combination of warmth and gentle vibrations promotes blood circulation, relieves muscle tension, and significantly enhances the overall massage effect, offering all-around comfort and care for the knees.

Operation of the SKG W3 PRO is made remarkably simple with its intelligent voice reporting feature. This innovative function facilitates easy control, even for the elderly, by providing voice prompts that keep users informed about the massager’s status and modes. This allows for a more immersive and hassle-free massage experience.

The SKG W3 PRO does not only excel in functionality but also in its build quality and design. Crafted from high-quality materials, it ensures durability and comfort. The ergonomic cut provides a snug fit around the knees, and the meticulous craftsmanship combined with the ergonomic design results in an outstanding massage experience, giving your knees the detailed and caring attention they deserve.

While the SKG W3 PRO offers numerous benefits, it does have its limitations. People with larger or thicker legs may find it challenging to get a tight wrap, as the device is not as large as some other models. Despite this, the SKG W3 PRO stands out as an all-around excellent solution for those seeking the combined benefits of heat and vibration in a cordless, compact, and easy-to-use knee massager.

Pros
Cordless with a 2000 mAh battery for up to 90 minutes of use
Four high-performance vibration motors and three massage modes
Intelligent voice reporting for easy operation
Lightweight and less bulky compared to other models
Cons
May not fit as tightly on larger or thicker legs

Recommendations

COMFIER Heated Knee Brace Wrap with Massage and...

The COMFIER Heated Knee Brace stands out as the best overall choice for those seeking comprehensive knee and leg pain relief. Merging heat and vibration massage, it’s designed to alleviate muscle soreness and joint pain from conditions like arthritis or sprains.

Its built-in heat pads and robust massage motors offer soothing and relaxing therapy, while the adjustable Velcro straps ensure a snug fit on various body parts. Although somewhat bulky and tethered to a power source, its effective pain relief and ease of use make it a top-notch option for everyday relief.

Other recommended products based on specific needs include:

  • Best for Heat and Air Compression: The FIT KING Knee Massager combines heating and air compression massage to target the entire knee area effectively. Its compact design and customizable settings make it ideal for those prioritising comfort and functionality in pain relief.
  • Best Hot and Cold Therapy: The Hyperice X offers revolutionary hot and cold therapy in one device, making it perfect for users seeking immediate relief and sustained comfort through advanced temperature control. Its cordless and app-controlled features add convenience and innovation to therapy sessions.
  • Best for Red Light Therapy: The BioRecover™ Light Therapy Knee Brace utilizes both vibration and red & near-infrared therapy to accelerate knee recovery. If you’re looking for a sophisticated device to stimulate cellular regeneration and alleviate pain, this is a top choice.
  • Best for TENS Therapy: For those who prefer TENS for pain management, the Beurer EM34 Knee and Elbow TENS Machine offers a 2-in-1 electric muscle stimulator with targeted pain relief. It’s an effective, drug-free option for dealing with common injuries like runner’s knee or tennis elbow.
  • Best Cordless Knee Massager: The COMFIER Cordless Knee Massager stands out for its portability and advanced features. Offering five vibration modes and three graphene heating levels, it provides effective pain relief and comfort without the constraints of cords. Its 3-in-1 design enhances its value, making it a versatile tool for overall body wellness.

Conclusion

As we conclude our exploration of knee massagers, remember that taking a step towards pain relief is a step towards reclaiming the lifestyle you love. Each device we’ve discussed offers a unique pathway to alleviate discomfort and enhance knee health.

Consider your specific needs, and let your journey to recovery be guided by informed choices and a commitment to well-being. With the right knee massager, every step forward can be one in comfort and confidence.

Related Posts

Thera Cane vs. Body Back Buddy: What’s Best for You?

Best Far Infrared Heating Pads of 2024

The 12 Best Massage Chair Pads in 2024

The Best Massage Pillows to Relax Your Back 2024

10 Best Stretching Machines for Tightness 2024

The Best Inversion Tables for Back Pain in 2024

15 Back Massagers for Ultimate Relief 2024

Top Neck Massagers to Ease Pain in 2024

Top 10 Massage Tables for Ultimate Relaxation 2024

10 Top Ice Therapy Machines for Recovery in 2024

Digital Wellness Updates
Stay ahead with our latest health insights and articles! Discover cutting-edge wellness tips and gadget reviews.
    Clicking on our links may earn us a commission at no extra cost to you, but it does not influence our reviews and comparisons.
    As an Amazon Associate, this website earns from qualifying purchases.